ISRO tests C25 Cryogenic Engine

The following article is based on my own interpretation of the said events and/ or publicly available information. Any material borrowed from published and unpublished sources has been appropriately referenced. I will bear the sole responsibility for anything that is found to have been copied or misappropriated or misrepresented in the following post.

Ritvik Singh, MBA 2016-18, Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Kharagpur


Last week, on India’s Republic Day, Indian space agency ISRO gave the country its best gift by successfully testing its most powerful cryogenic engine, code-named C25. It was tested for a duration of 50 seconds at ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC) in Mahendragiri. This is the same technology which was used in Saturn V, which carried man to the moon in 1967. By testing an engine this powerful in the first attempt, ISRO has once again demonstrated its ability to work in new areas.

For those who are unfamiliar with this technology, Cryogenics is the study of substances at a temperature as low as 150 degree Celsius and lower. Since Cryogenic engines use liquid Oxygen and liquid Hydrogen as fuels at this temperature, they can be tricky to operate. Thus far, the US, Japan, China, France and Russia are the only countries to have tested Cryogenic engines.

In my opinion, this is a great news for India. Since Russia denied this technology to India under US pressure, it is a huge accomplishment for them to develop such a complex technology. With a powerful C25 backing the GSLV Mark III rocket, India is looking forward to launching its second moon mission – the Chandrayaan 2.

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Budget 2017

The following article is based on my own interpretation of the said events and/ or publicly available information. Any material borrowed from published and unpublished sources has been appropriately referenced. I will bear the sole responsibility for anything that is found to have been copied or misappropriated or misrepresented in the following post.

Amrutha Bhamidimukkula, MBA 2016-18, Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Kharagpur


The country is fast moving from desktops to handled devices and smartphones are improving in their penetration and ease. This highlights the prominence of mobile banking in our lives. Quick adaption by a large chunk of the population, though sudden and to some extent forced, to mobile banking and e-wallets was one of the saving graces during demonetization. Making smartphones more affordable and promoting cheaper data services will be one of the key expectations. Affordable mobile handset or consumer durable items of a certain price limit may be given concessions on duties.

For the e-commerce market, particularly, major businesses have demanded clarity of FDI in B2C e-commerce through automatic route. Last year, the government allowed FDI into B2C e-commerce but disallowed the marketplaces like Flipkart and Snapdealto offer discounts to consumers thus ending the discount wars. Though consumers enjoyed the discount wars, brick and mortar stores claimed they suffered hugely due to such business tactics.

The government will want to put the country back on the high growth path. So, improving customer confidence and consumer spending will be vital as well.

Impact of Donald Trump’s decision to ban Muslim countries

 

The following article is based on my own interpretation of the said events and/ or publicly available information. Any material borrowed from published and unpublished sources has been appropriately referenced. I will bear the sole responsibility for anything that is found to have been copied or misappropriated or misrepresented in the following post.

Devan Goyal, MBA 2016-18, Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Kharagpur


The case of Muslim ban by Donald Trump bars citizens of seven Muslim majority countries for entering the US for the period of 90 days. It also suspends the United States refugee system for a period of 120 days. According to MR Trump his decision will help keep radical Islamic terrorists out of the US. The countries which are effected are Syria, Iran, Sudan, Libya, Somalia, Yemen and Iraq.

I believe that the decision taken by trump will benefit less to US than it will raise harms to the innocent people. There are many people those who will be effected. For ex people who were out of US are not given permission to enter US. Their whole life style stays impacted. Moreover IT industries will also be impacted as employees who are sent for onsite works will have to return back. There is US Syrian refugee program that gave accommodation to 12486 Syrians in 2016. They have reduced the cap on the total number of refugees
from 1, 10,000 to 50,000.

Also it has violated many laws that includes giving preference to Christian refugees over Muslim refugees. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 says there should be ban of discrimination against immigrants on the basis of national origin. Mr Trump is violating this act also. It also violates the first amendment on freedom of religion.

So at last to pen off, I think the decision taken by Donald Trump seems to have lot of sufferings. The benefit out of it is not visible as of now. It will ultimately disturb the relations of US with the other countries.

 

Milky Way being pushed at 20 lakh km/hr by an unknown force

The following article is based on my own interpretation of the said events and/ or publicly available information. Any material borrowed from published and unpublished sources has been appropriately referenced. I will bear the sole responsibility for anything that is found to have been copied or misappropriated or misrepresented in the following post.

Priyank Begani, MBA 2016-18, Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Kharagpur


As per the scientists, Milky Way is being pushed through space by cosmic dead zone. It is known that our galaxy is being pulled through space, but cosmologists suspected it was being pushed as well.The constellation is loacated on the farthest side  of Lacerta, the Lizard, the vast patch of nothingness appears to have a striking dearth of galaxies compared to the rest of its cosmic neighbourhood.

The Shapely attracter being the attracting obstacle, pulling the Wilky Way galaxy, but research showed the pushing force by a Dipole repeller. A 3D map of the nesrest galaxies show a steady flow of galaxies towards the Shapley attractor and away from another region of space almost directly behind the Milky Way on the same axis. The movement of Milky Way depend on the gravitational attraction attraction of the galaxies around. With increased distance from Wilky Way, the attracting force diminishes and at regions devoid of galaxies, give rise to repelling force

So from the studies done at Imperial College London even shows that with increased voids in space, lack of galaxies at a particular direction, leads to a pushing force ,with an attracting force from the distant and closely spaced galaxies around Milky Way.

 

 

 

 

Trump’s refugee ban- Facts vs News

The following article is based on my own interpretation of the said events and/ or publicly available information. Any material borrowed from published and unpublished sources has been appropriately referenced. I will bear the sole responsibility for anything that is found to have been copied or misappropriated or misrepresented in the following post.

Sanjeevi kumar Uppu, MBA 2016-18, Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Kharagpur

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So, what actually Trump did? Did he seriously implement his promised Muslim ban? No. He signed an executive order dominated mainly by refugee restrictions and temporary provisions that are aimed directly at limiting immigration from jihadist conflicted areas.

Let’s analyze the key provisions and get some insights about this.

First, the order temporarily halts refugee admissions for 120 days to improve the immigration process and then caps refugee admissions at 50,000 per year. In 2002, the United States admitted only 27,131 refugees. It admitted fewer than 50,000 in 2003, 2006, and 2007. As for President Obama, his refugee camp from 2013 to 2015 was a mere 70,000, and in 2011 and 2012 he admitted barely more than 50,000 refugees himself. The bottom line is that Trump is improving security screening and intends to admit refugees at close to the average rate of the 15 years before Obama’s dramatic expansion in 2016.

Second, the order imposes a temporary, 90-day ban on people entering the U.S. from Iraq, Syria, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen. These are countries either torn apart by jihadist violence or under the control of hostile, jihadist governments.
To the extent this ban applies to new immigrant and non-immigrant entry, this temporary halt is wise. We know that terrorists are trying to infiltrate the ranks of refugees and other visitors. We know that immigrants from Somalia have launched jihadist attacks at home and have sought to leave the U.S. to join ISIS. The terrible recent track record of completed and attempted terror attacks by Muslim immigrants, it’s clear that Trump’s current approach is inadequate to control the threat. A short-term ban on entry from problematic countries combined with a systematic review of our security procedures is both reasonable and prudent.

However, there are reports that the ban is being applied even to green-card holders. The plain language of the order doesn’t apply to legal permanent residents of the U.S., and green-card holders have been through round after round of vetting and security checks. If the Trump administration continues to apply the order to legal permanent residents, it should indeed be condemned.

 

Jai Hind..!!

 

H-1B visa impact on IT Sector

The following article is based on my own interpretation of the said events and/ or publicly available information. Any material borrowed from published and unpublished sources has been appropriately referenced. I will bear the sole responsibility for anything that is found to have been copied or misappropriated or misrepresented in the following post.

Shivani Manchanda, MBA 2016-18, Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Kharagpur

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Information Technology Sector in India slumped by 4% after the U.S. administration proposed to renovate the H-1B work visa programme. This programme is widely used by all the Indian IT firms to send thousands of their employees to U.S. every year, now all the IT companies may have to change their business strategies as the new policy also include to double the minimum wage to $130,000 of the H-1B visa holder.

The wages are increased and it is being said that it is for the efficient hiring of talented and skilled people but as the Indian IT companies would not be able to pay this higher amount to their employees so this shows the inclination on the Trump’s campaign in one line “American jobs Americans only”. Now most of the Indian employees will be left with the offshore working and the opportunities to work onsite will reduce.

Tech centers established in U.S. are now planning to shift these in other countries as it will be difficult for them to hire people from other countries and they are also aware of the shortage of skilled workforce in U.S. like the shortage of data scientists.

Obviously this is not the best solution if the focus is really on hiring the skillful and capable employees for American companies because it is tumbling international opportunities and directly impacting the Information Technology sector of India.

Internet of Things

The following article is based on my own interpretation of the said events and/ or publicly available information. Any material borrowed from published and unpublished sources has been appropriately referenced. I will bear the sole responsibility for anything that is found to have been copied or misappropriated or misrepresented in the following post.

Somil Rastogi, MBA 2016-18, Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Kharagpur

 

Currently, the Internet is mainly operated by humans. Certainly, there are miles of fiber optic cabling and millions of routers around the world directing Internet traffic and hundreds of server farms  that are crunching numbers for optimal service. But in the core of it, the Internet is a person-to-person network and the electronics are merely there to facilitate that network.

The Internet of Things creates a network of multiple devices that communicate with each other without human involvement. This device-to-device connection mostly involves the collection of data and the processing of that data so that said devices can make their own decisions and act accordingly. Therefore the name: Internet (connectivity) of Things (devices).

The Internet of Things is a concept that requires three things in the core:

  • A technique for devices to be interconnected,
  • A technique for devices to gather data,
  • A technique for devices to process that data and make decisions accordingly.

This interconnectivity has huge implications for efficiency and automation. When utilized effectively, this no-human-involved sort of self-device-management frees us up to spend our time elsewhere. In the future, maybe it’ll save us as little as a few minutes per day or as much as several hours per day, but all of it adds up to big gains in the long run.

The Internet of things will touch every corner of our life in future. One of the common scenarios will be the prescriptive medication. A track on our health and daily habits could aid hospitals to predict ills in advance. Other sector of IOT application will be Utility- the smart electricity grid, the smart meters, connected grids and sensors in windmill and solar panels could aid us to track and manage energy usage and help us to build predictive modeling to schedule downtimes and efficient energy usage. IOT can be applied on a large scale as well such as Traffic management. If the city’s infrastructure was expanded to include roadside sensors and satellite imaging, that data could be used to analyze traffic pattern around the city and dynamically adjust the traffic light operations to minimize the choke points and jams.

The most disruptive application of IOT will be it the manufacturing sector, which will transform what things are manufactured but more importantly ‘How things are manufactured’. The future of manufacturing plant will be the Modular factory units which will be flexible manufacturing factories and integrated logistics. IOT will aid in Virtual production which involves Digital plant with Virtual inspection, through this we will be able to control and manage manufacturing facilities from miles away. Collaborative robots will aid in smart manufacturing, the activities which involves precision, personalized tasks and risk in manufacturing will be done easily. The Radio Frequency Identification (RDIF) will aid in finished products tracking as well as in real time location systems and online monitoring process, vendor parts etc.

In such a interconnected environment Data security is extremely important. Device-to-device connection is all good and dandy until a human decides to spoof part of that connection and remotely hijack a device for malpractices. This isn’t a huge problem for something like device-regulated home temperature, but losing control of city-wide traffic could spell disaster. And then there are device malfunctions. We all know how software and hardware can both be buggy, and sometimes those bugs are quite major. With regard to the Internet of Things, buggy hardware (errors in data collection) and buggy software (errors in data processing) can throw massive wrenches into the large systems that future generations may grown to depend on.

One might wonder, if we have reached at too much complexity (IOT), but the future generation of kids would think nothing of it. It seems their wonderful plastic human brains could adapt to any acceleration technology and embrace it lovingly. IOT, whatever way we think about it, whatever way we think it will turn out to be- IOT is happening. Every major global government and every major economic block is investing heavily in IOT. There are already hundred of million things connected to internet we are heading to hundred of billion things or possibly trillion trillions. And it will change our life that’s one certainty.

VODAFONE and IDEA Merger

The following article is based on my own interpretation of the said events and/ or publicly available information. Any material borrowed from published and unpublished sources has been appropriately referenced. I will bear the sole responsibility for anything that is found to have been copied or misappropriated or misrepresented in the following post.

Yaswanth Kumar Parasa, MBA 2016-18, Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Kharagpur


UK-based telecom giant Vodafone said on Monday it was in talks for an all-stock merger of its unlisted Indian subsidiary with rival Idea Cellular. This would make the merged entity India’s largest telecom company in terms of revenue, at 43 per cent. It will also become a leading global telecom firm in terms of number of subscribers, at 387 million.

The combined entity will derive significant benefits from network consolidation as the network site requirement will reduce significantly. The combined entity will have concentrated spectrum portfolio with 36.5% of the liberalised spectrum in 1800MHz band, enabling it to deploy higher spectrum per site resulting in higher revenue productivity per site. the Idea-Vodafone merger will help the combined entity to take on RJio more aggressively it will have leaner operations leading to better profitability. This will also boost their ability to invest in the network.

Idea/Vodafone merger could make strategic sense. After merger  they can move  to No.1 in market share, scale/synergy benefits, and complementary footprint with Vodafone strong in urban areas and Idea strong in rural areas. Also, consolidation is always good, especially for any capital-intensive sector with multiple players

Key Challenges:

The combined entity will exceed the maximum user base limit of 50% in as many as nine license areas and revenue market share will surpass the 50% threshold in five circles.

Getting proper synergy between two companies and trying to consolidate market share competing with Reliance Jio and Bharti airtel.

Flipkart and Ola batting for law against Capital dumping

The following article is based on my own interpretation of the said events and/ or publicly available information. Any material borrowed from published and unpublished sources has been appropriately referenced. I will bear the sole responsibility for anything that is found to have been copied or misappropriated or misrepresented in the following post.

Krishnachaitanya Potturi, MBA 2016-18, Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Kharagpur.


Recently, we saw the headlines that Flipkart’s Sachin Bansal and Ola’s Bhavish Aggarwal are trying to seek government protection against capital dumping by global rivals. Now, prominent venture capitalist Vani Kola, founder and managing director of Kalaari Capital has also joined the controversial debate.

Bizarrely, they never felt the need for any playing field, level when Ola and Flipkart were busy pulverizing other local players market with foreign funds. A total of $3.2 billion in foreign funds has been invested in Flipkart and is even registered in Singapore. The majority of Flipkart’s capital is in the form of foreign funding. Founders Sachin and Binny Bansal together hold only a 30 percent stake in the company. Ola’s Bhavish Aggarwal has secured sufficient foreign investment to the point that he and his partner Ankit Bhati currently own only 10 percent of the firm’s shares.

Flipkart, Ola and many, many other startups in India have entirely been set up on a copy-paste model. Flipkart took 9 years and US$3.5 billion to grow to where it is. Amazon simply took less than $2 billion and built a larger and better-loved business in India than Flipkart that too in 1/3rd the time. Ola went the same path. It raised $1.3 billion and spent a lot of that to build a business that it asked for $5 billion to sell. Uber  just spent 1/10th that amount – i.e. around $500 million to build a larger and more loved business in India than Ola, once again, in 1/3rd of the time.

Current investors in Flipkart have cut its on-book valuation from $15 billion to $5 billion.  Ola and Snapdeal have been devalued by their investors too. Hence the request to grant protection and ask the government to let them put foreign money in Flipkart and Ola and not let foreign money go into Amazon and Uber. While the absence of Indian-ness in a Flipkart or Ola works as a fitting response, the allegation has implications beyond an India-versus-others debate. ‘capital dumping’ is no longer about MNCs versus Indian companies but bigger versus smaller players, regardless of founder origins and nationalistic pleas.

Post-Budget market effects

The following article is based on my own interpretation of the said events and/ or publicly available information. Any material borrowed from published and unpublished sources has been appropriately referenced. I will bear the sole responsibility for anything that is found to have been copied or misappropriated or misrepresented in the following post.

Prakhar Agrawal, MBA 2016-18, Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Kharagpur

If historical data is to be believed then there are high chances of stock market corrections immediately after the budget. In the few weeks following the budgets since 2001, the indices as well as the broader market had changed momentum.
The market surged before the 2015 budget and fell immediately thereafter. The reverse happened after the 2016 budget. The market which had been falling till then rose after the budget.

Unlike the past two years, traders have very little expectations from this year’s Budget as it is coming between two major events: Demonetization and UP elections. The rise in share prices in the last month is partly due to large companies announcing better than expected quarter results than before despite the cash crunch brought brought about by demonetization rather than any serious expectations from the budget.
Also the uncertainties  over the outcome of the UP polls, which begin in February are keeping the traders worried. The traders feel that effect of UP polls will have more effect on the market than the budget.
Traders say that though anything negative will throw the market down by several points bu that will be a buying opportunity  to buy for investors. The farm and the infrastructure sectors along with the handling of fiscal deficit are the prime macro indicators that will be on the trader radars.