Lifting The Growth Sights

The following article is based on my own interpretation of the said events. Any material borrowed from published and unpublished sources has been appropriately referenced. I will bear the sole responsibility for anything that is found to have been copied or misappropriated or misrepresented in the following post.

Anshuman Mahanty, MBA 2015-17, Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Kharagpur

A promising monsoon forecast for the ensuing season has enthused not just market sentiments, but more importantly, the outlook of the Finance Ministry, which now seems to be reworking growth projections for the economy. To begin with, the economic affairs secretary Shaktikanta Das, observed:

If monsoon is good, we should definitely do better than 2015-16. It [that is the growth rate] should be upwards of 7.5 percent this year.

A couple of days later, finance minister Arun Jaitley was sounding even more positive when he said that the government might revise its projection of economic growth for 2016-17 to 8-8.5 percent from its earlier estimate of 7.5 percent.

Even Reserve Bank of India governor, Raghuram Rajan, in his interview to the Wall Street Journal said a good monsoon would give more room to the RBI to cut its benchmark rate. Of course, he did not specifically talk about the growth rate, but his perspective on emerging monetary policy stance would be favourable for the growth scenario.

What is the feasibility of achieving such a high growth? In the post-reforms period (1991-2015), there have been eight years when the country achieved real GDP growth rate of 8 percent and more – and with three exceptional years recording an annual average growth rate of about 9.3 percent (2005-06 to 2007-08). In five of these eight years, the high overall economic growth rate was associated with a high agricultural GDP growth rate, ranging from 4.2 percent to 9.9 percent (averaging out to 7.4 percent per annum).

Where 53 percent of the gross cropped area is still rain-fed, the monsoon surely has a powerful influence on agricultural production and agricultural GDP growth. However, apart from the quantum of rainfall, its precipitation and spatial distribution are also critical factors in generating maximum positive impact. The other two key factors normally impacting agricultural performance are: rate of investment/capital formation (public and private) and incentives through pricing mechanism (for example, minimum support prices). But these are generally unlikely to experience large variation from year to year.

If, therefore, we assume the validity of the Indian Meteorological Department’s (IMD) forecast of normal monsoon, and also expect it is reasonably even distribution across 36 meteorological sub-divisions, there is a strong possibility of agricultural GDP expanding by 6 to 7 percent in 2016-17 or even higher. Consequently, it may not be foolhardy to project overall GDP growth rate of 8 percent or more in the current financial year.

Interestingly enough, there is also a fairly strong correlation between agricultural growth rate and manufacturing performance. In all those five years of high agricultural growth, the manufacturing sector also did well, with the average annual manufacturing GDP growth a little short of double-digit rate.

But there is no denying that several other growth promoting forces also influenced the performance of the manufacturing sector in some of those years, especially the corporate sector’s vigorous investment drive and successes in export markets. So a normal monsoon and the likely resurgence of agricultural GDP per se may not ensure high manufacturing growth in the absence of two major links, namely, revival of corporate investment and exports growth.

Given this, two possible alternative growth scenarios for 2016-17 are possible:

First, the normal monsoon would, at best, lead to agricultural GDP growth rate of, say, not more than 4 percent (as was the case in 2006-07) and its beneficial fall-out on other sectors, namely, manufacturing and services sector would, therefore, be limited. It may relieve rural distress and current acute water scarcity, but its growth pull may not transmit substantially to the overall growth performance. This means the growth outlook for 2016-17 would be marginally better than the previous year’s 7.3 percent real GDP growth.

The second scenario is the one which Jaitley is envisaging (8-8.5 percent growth). This is certainly based on the assumption of a stronger agricultural bounce back. It is further predicated on fuller backward and forward linkages and most of these happening during the course of the current financial year itself.

In this framework, agricultural resurgence would trigger a powerful impact on manufacturing through the demand side – demand for tractors and fertilizers in farming operations and for consumer goods like clothing, bicycles and two-wheelers through increased purchasing power. From the supply side, the positive impact would manifest itself in anchoring retail inflation within the RBI’s comfort zone (less than 5 percent on year-on-year basis). Equally importantly, this would also improve considerably the availability of agricultural raw materials for a host of processing and manufacturing activities, be it cotton textiles or food processing.

However, the rationale of high growth obviously depends on how the actual monsoon scenario evolves. This can only be firmed up, say, by the close of August 2016. In the meantime, the finance minister may be wanting to use the opportunity for “sentiment engineering” (perhaps prudently) by talking up the growth.

But growth triggers are a complex phenomenon; it is not enough for just one of the parameters be right, but there has to be convergence of many. For example, the entire premise of stronger growth is predicated on domestic demand. This is so because India has suffered the worst foreign trade performance during 2015-16, and there does not seem to be any early signs of a turnaround in this situation. The setback during Great Recession of 2009-10 was considerably milder in comparison. Thus, exports have shrunk by as much as 15.9 percent from US$310 billion in 2014-15 to US$ 261 billion in 2015-16. At the same time, imports also dropped from US$448 billion to US$379.6 billion.

What also transpires is that after a decade of remarkable growth (2001-2011), external trade is in the midst of a prolonged phase of stagnation, lasting for four years till date. The collapse of international crude oil and petroleum product prices is obviously the villain of the piece, causing massive shrinkage of both imports and exports. But there are other factors, including the perceived overvaluation of the rupee, based on real effective exchange rate, undermining exports competitiveness.

Hence, there are serious concerns that strengthening of rupee will lead to a loss of India’s exports competitiveness, and that, in turn, will hurt the recovery of the manufacturing sector. Also, imports are becoming cheaper, at a time when many of India’s basic industries are reeling under excess capacity, and so an appreciating rupee may not augur well.

Finally, to leverage the likely favourable impact of normal monsoon on the overall economic growth, the government has to put the reforms agenda, including various flagship programmes like Make in India, Start-up India and their implementation high up in its priority list.


‘Marketing In The Moment’ By Mr. Anupam Dikhit, Industry Manager, Twitter India

The following article is based on my own interpretation of the said events. Any material borrowed from published and unpublished sources has been appropriately referenced. I will bear the sole responsibility for anything that is found to have been copied or misappropriated or misrepresented in the following post.

Anshuman Mahanty, MBA 2015-17, Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Kharagpur


On the 14th of January, 2016, VGSoM had the privilege of welcoming to the campus Mr. Anupam Dikhit, Industry Manager, Twitter India for an interaction with the students under the Vaarta’ 16 series of guest lectures. Specializing in the digital marketing ecosystem, Mr. Dikhit, who also has the distinction of being chosen as the Economic Times Young Leader in 2012, had a wealth of experience to share with the audience. In what was an exceedingly engaging session, the students gained some valuable exposure to ‘marketing in the moment’, a trend that is taking precedence over conventional marketing mechanisms, and more so  in a transforming global market characterized by the customer’s need for relatedness and instant gratification.

This is where, said Mr. Dikhit, Twitter comes into the picture. With increased global connectivity, hardly any events or incidences stay within local confines these days.  The power of the hashtag continues to subsume boundaries and bring people together onto a bandwagon. So be it the US Presidential elections or the FIFA World Cup or something as trivial as the famously viral #TheDress debate, Twitter is the medium through which any content carries a massive potential for becoming a global fad. Needless to say, such a tool is nothing short of a godsend for marketers looking to initiate a buzz around their offering.

Mr. Dikhit presented numerous examples of how brands have leveraged Twitter’s power to engage a mass population within a matter of minutes. He mentioned how brands like Volvo and Chevrolet, among others, had taken the Twitter game to an altogether new level with their Interception and ‘TechnlogyAndStuff’ campaigns.

He also highlighted how Twitter caters perfectly as a marketing medium to a growing segment of customers having short attention spans. To capitalize on this medium, brands must also overcome challenges of unlocking fragmented audiences, understanding the new purchase funnel and connecting the customer to rich experiences.

The sheer volume of tweets, currently standing at an average of 500 million per day, also means that there is big data for companies to extract and make sense of, to gauge what is going on in the lives of people and how they can provide something that is of value to them. Mr. Dikhit said that most companies these days use Twitter as their preferred social networking tool for marketing and service, owing to the real-time engagement it provides with the customer.

The students came up with questions relating to Twitter’s goals and expansion strategy in India, and also, the much talked about plans of Twitter of going beyond the 140-character limit. Mr. Dikhit was impressed by the interest shown by students and their knowledge of upcoming trends in the digital marketing scene. Thus concluded an enthralling session with Mr. Anupam Dikhit who inspired students to think creatively in order to succeed in an age when marketing becomes more and more ‘in the moment’.

The Leadership Summit ’16: ‘How Innovation Drives Leadership’

The following article is based on my own interpretation of the said events. Any material borrowed from published and unpublished sources has been appropriately referenced. I will bear the sole responsibility for anything that is found to have been copied or misappropriated or misrepresented in the following post.

Anshuman Mahanty, MBA 2015-17, Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Kharagpur
It is said that true leaders don’t create followers. What they create are more leaders. And on the 6th of February, 2016, Vinod Gupta School of Management had the privilege to welcome an array of industry leaders from across different business domains; leaders who were invited to the campus as speakers for the much-awaited Leadership Summit held under Purvodaya, the institution’s annual B-School fest. By the time the Summit ended, the penchant for leadership amongst everyone in the audience had been invoked to a great extent.

Moderating the discussion panel was Mr. Mehraj Dube, well known for his anchoring of popular news shows and currently the VP of Statesman. Mr. Dube kept the audience engaged and started off the discussion by throwing out a question to the open house about what innovation means to them. ‘How Innovation Drives Leadership’ being the topic for the discussion, the Summit rightly hosted leaders from firms that have, over the years, redefined business in some way or the other.

While Ms. Sharada Rao chose Elon Musk, the inimitable 21st-century entrepreneur as an example while speaking of innovation as path-breaking ideas that leaders need to keep faith in, she also spoke of innovation as effective ground-level day-to-day problem solving. Mr. Anurag Dua- Director, PwC classified innovators as either ‘need seekers’- companies which source ideas from people and the society and implement it, ‘market readers’- firms with an eye for upcoming trends and for whom innovation is entirely commercially-driven, and ‘technology drivers’- those who usher in new technologies that disrupt a certain market.

Mr. Sadashiv Nayak, CEO- Big Bazaar defined innovation as a process of ensuring that a need or want is met in a more effective manner. From a retail perspective, he cited the example of ‘junk exchange’ programs wherein customers could bring any scrap to the store and get a discount coupon on their purchases. Mr. Nayak said that the strategy made eyes roll in the industry but was successful in creating value for all stakeholders. The store stocked up consumption, the customers got a better deal than the ‘raddiwallahs’ and it was the latter that the store sold this accumulated scrap too. Mr. Abhsishek Pandey, CVP- Max Life Insurance was of the view that necessity or sheer stress produces innovation. As a cue from his own industry, he pointed how the privatization of life insurance in India has given stakeholders more options to choose from and hence has necessitated applying innovation to stay competitive. He spoke of the growing Internet seepage in the country as a new tool for accessibility and innovation.

Talking of innovation in the publishing sector was Mr. Asheesh Sabarwal, CMO- Pearson, who highlighted how executives and leaders in publishing companies are currently faced with the challenge of the onslaught from the ever-growing digital printing. Something that cricket followers can connect with, Sri Lanka’s upheaval of the way one-day cricket was played back during the 1996 World Cup was another excellent example of innovation Mr. Sabarwal put forward. When asked as to what impedes innovation in India, he had a little exercise for the audience that emphasized how accustomed we are to our own styles and routines. Thus, he said that the biggest challenge to innovation is accepting change.

As the discussion went on, Mr. Dube shifted on to other pressing questions. With ‘jugaad’ having transcended from its definition of being frugal, quick-fix solutions to becoming an oft-quoted word in management circles, it was debated as to whether ‘jugaad’ deserved to be seen as outright innovation. The panelists were largely of the view that for an innovation to be sustainable, it needs to be structured and well thought out from all perspectives. While ‘jugaad’ is a novel way of solving problems using a minimum possible combination of resources, the panelists believed it was more of an improvisation than innovation. At this point, Mr. Sadashiv Nayak made a very valid point about failed innovations. He said that we only tend to hear and know about the successful examples of innovation but there are many innovations that fail to see the light of the day. This can happen when an idea is implemented too ahead of its time. Mr. Nayak was candid in accepting some of the failed innovation tactics that he has been a part of in the industry. He was of the view that the intuitive reaction of throwing around blame for failures does nothing but hinders your revival.

Mr. Anurag Dua spoke highly of initiatives such as, an online portal for citizens to know more about governance and schemes and to participate and voice their opinions. This, he said, is an example of innovation driving leadership. Connecting innovation to leadership, Mr. Mehraj Dube put forward the question of whether innovation should be driven only by a commercial intent. Ms. Sharada Rao stressed on the need for branding innovations better, whether it be for a commercial or a social cause. This, according to her, is one area where some otherwise brilliant Indian innovations have failed to cash in.

To focus on making not just the product but the process easier for the customers is what Mr. Abhishek Pandey stressed upon. Supporting this with an example of how insurance companies these days connect to the customer through the latter’s bank, he said that usually for products like insurance or any other product or service involving expert technicalities, the customers always prefer someone else doing things for them. Focus on the customer and the commercial side will take care of itself, is what Mr. Pandey essentially conveyed.

Mr. Asheesh Sabarwal weighed in his views about the deterrents to innovation and how the aspiring managers in the audience should overcome them. He encouraged the students to get out of their comfort zones and take that slight leap of faith to overcome the risks attached to doing or ideating something new. Ms. Rao chipped in with how our education system should be moulded so as to condition us for facing failures.

As was expected out of a news anchor of national repute, Mr. Mehraj Dube guided the conversation brilliantly and made sure that there was a two-way discussion, with members from the audience chipping in with questions, suggestions and even answers to challenges.

The Summit unfolded with the panelists wishing the students well for their careers ahead. As they all headed for the evening tea session together, the hallowed portals of the Kalidas Auditorium stood testimony to an afternoon of immense knowledge-sharing and constructive deliberation between industry leaders who were all praise for the hospitality that IIT Kharagpur had to offer them.

Purvodaya ’16 Keynote Speech on ‘Financial Inclusion’ by Ms. Arundhati Bhattacharya, Chairperson, SBI

The following article is based on my own interpretation of the said events. Any material borrowed from published and unpublished sources has been appropriately referenced. I will bear the sole responsibility for anything that is found to have been copied or misappropriated or misrepresented in the following post.

Anshuman Mahanty, MBA 2015-17, Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Kharagpur


When you enter into the IIT Kharagpur campus, almost the first thing you notice aside from the tree-lined streets in the distance is the branch premise of the largest public sector bank in India, the State Bank of India. It is here, at this very branch that a lady by the name of Ms. Arundhati Bhattacharya used to work as a staff. She is now the 30th most powerful woman on the planet, as per Forbes. And her journey from that SBI branch lined against the campus boundary wall to becoming the Chairperson of the State Bank of India has been nothing short of magnanimous.

Given the inspirational figure that she is, it is needless to mention that having her as the Chief Guest for the inauguration ceremony of Purvodaya ’16, our annual B-School fest, was a moment of pride for the institution. She shared the stage with Prof. Partha Pratim Das, Director- IIT Kharagpur and Prof. Kalyan K. Guin, Dean- VGSoM, both of whom thanked her for taking time out of her busy schedule to interact with the students present as audience.

Ms. Bhattacharya spoke of her presence as a sort of homecoming and said how her most formative years as a working lady and an individual had been shaped at the IIT Kharagpur campus itself. She advised the students to make the most out of their stay at the campus that according to her is a place where she has seen opportunities being realized and dreams getting achieved.

Her speech centred on financial inclusion for everyone, a concept that is oft-quoted in the annals of economics and policymaking these days. She also talked about the benefits of the JAM trinity- the Jan Dhan Yojana, Aadhar and Mobile. The absolute prerequisite for financial inclusion, she said, was a unique identification and accessibility to services. She sounded positive about the future of mobile banking in India, saying that while it has evolved exponentially over the last few years; solutions need to be worked out to make it easier for people living in far-off remote locations with poor accessibility to do banking transactions through a mobile phone.

“If there is any Dharma in the world, it is in empowering people who are not empowered”, said she while emphasizing on the need to bring more and more people under the ambit of banking services. She explained in detail the vicious cycle of debt that farmers often find themselves in and how private moneylenders exploit the former under harsh repayment conditions. Most Government schemes also fail to reach the people they’re intended to serve, for middlemen take advantage of the fact that the poor farmers either do not have a bank account, or if they have one, they don’t know how to use it.

While calling for students to employ their technical and management knowledge to solve these pressing problems, she told them about SBI’s ‘Youth for India’ initiative, which is a 13-month long rural fellowship program that sends students to far-off Indian villages to interact with the local population, understand their problems and work out effective long-run solutions.

Apart from financial inclusion, she also shared some of her wisdom on issues like gold demonetization and NPA targets set by SBI. The audience came up with a host of questions for her, all of which she answered with aplomb. Bad debts, public loans and every other issue worth talking about in context of the Indian economy were discussed in a fascinating and interactive session.

When asked what it is that inspires her, she said, “You cannot wait for others to help you. You need to help yourself.” However, she also recalled all the little things that her colleagues in the SBI campus branch used to do for her, some of which left a lasting imprint on her. “If you do 1 act of kindness, the universe will give back 100. Sometimes you do need helping hands to succeed in life”, she said while acknowledging all those who have helped her in this incredible journey of hers.

As a token of advice to the students, she ended her keynote speech saying that in an increasingly competitive world where everyone is chasing success, it is easy for the balance between your work and your life, your family to go disarray. Thus, she encouraged to think of work and life being same rather than seeing them as two disconnected entities.

As the speech ended, the auditorium hall reverberated with respectful applause and admiration for this brilliant and wonderful personality that the School was privileged to host.

‘Door’ darshan but a myopic vision….

The following article is based on my own interpretation of the said events. Any material borrowed from published and unpublished sources has been appropriately referenced. I will bear the sole responsibility for anything that is found to have been copied or misappropriated or misrepresented in the following post.

Anshuman Mahanty, MBA 2015-17, Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Kharagpur


Stories, anecdotes and snippets galore about how some businesses continue to stand the test of time and disruption through a sheer transformational will to reinvent themselves and stay ahead of the times. But to say that one of the largest public service broadcasters in the world- the Doordarshan (DD) doesn’t feel too inspired by those stories is something I can bet my house on.

DD hasn’t gone totally out of the window though. It never will. The Prasar Bharti operates DD’s Freedish, a free DTH service offering 59 free-to-air channels. It is the largest DTH operator in the country reaching about 18 million homes. DD continues to be the television network with the maximum outreach within the country. To stay relevant to a small share of it’s audience which is online, DD has even updated the website. The website is in a much better shape than the absolute shamble it was previously in, and it even hosts a live streaming of the National channel. Sarkaari lingo reigns supreme even here though; which is why when you click on a link redirecting you to their Freedish service, instead of the channels list, they provide you with Governmental annexures and satellite information that no one cares about.

To put in bluntly, for people having a choice of channels, Doordarshan is not the preferred channel. The content is so woefully low on quality that people would rather sleep to a ‘No Signal’ sticker on their TV screens. The story of AIR is no different. Private radio channels have been able to attract listeners quite effortlessly. Even across other fields that have witnessed private participation after Government monopoly, services like the BSNL or the Indian Airlines have dismally failed to retain their customer base, due to their lackadaisical attitude.

For DD, the story wasn’t all gloomy though. India’s TV revolution started with a war. In 1990, Saddam Hussein’s army rolled into Kuwait, imperiling, among others, a million and a half working Indian migrants in the Gulf. This created huge demand for the war news in India, which Doordarshan, with its antique news bulletins, dominated my monsoon reports and the daily life of the Prime Minister, could not meet. This gave headway to rollicking cable TV entrepreneurs. Hundreds of small satellite dishes were set up in India to bring live coverage of the war to Indian homes via CNN. 1992 saw the launch of the first Hindi satellite station, Zee TV. Adding to the onslaught, the Doordarshan which previously used to charge the BCCI a fee to telecast cricket matches, a national passion-cum-pastime, had to now lock horns with a private broadcaster- the TWI in a bid to secure the rights of telecast.

Doordarshan emerged out of this initial competition fairly well. It focused on quality. Antique news bulletins gave way to investigate journalism programs such as the ‘Aankhon Dekhi’. A plethora of family shows and children’s entertainment shows gave DD the much-needed colour and vigour to appeal to the masses who now had a choice to switch. Cricket matches, live events and anything worthy of national recognition- DD continued to have them under their ambit well into the early 2000s.

Governmental intervention had to happen though. Every government, irrespective of the party in power, has treated Doordarshan as an in-house mouthpiece meant to be controlled. All the hunky-dory talk of financial and administrative autonomy is nothing more than a joke. For instance, it is said that during A.B. Vajpeyee’s NDA regime, the then I&B minister Pramod Mahajan had transferred a station director for not leading the evening news with the P.M.’s address earlier in the day. From recent memory, also recall the selective editing of one Narendra Modi interview prior to the 2014 elections, or the continuing trend of the live telecast of RSS’s Dussehra gathering following Modi’s rise to power.

Attempts to professionalise the news section have regularly been thwarted by the powers-in-charge. That explains why every experiment to have independent news reporting or better entertainment on India’s official broadcast network has flopped so far. Remember the stalled agreement with HFCL-Nine Broadcasting to privatise three hours of programming on DD Metro, a subsidiary channel, in 2000? Or even the DD Metro experiment itself?

So what can the Prasar Bharti do to get itself out of this mess? More importantly, how much of an initiative should the Government take to refurbish an ailing broadcast network? At a time when paid media rules the roost even in the private sector, a fair and robust media not pressured by favour, fear or finance should work as a gush of fresh wind to an audience sick of biases. An independent body of media professionals, creative directors, scriptwriters, and basically everyone having something or the other to do with television, should be constituted to review whatever goes on to the national channel.

Content is always king. It is through the power of content that old Doordarshan shows still linger on in the minds of those who grew up with DD. If DD has to revive itself even a slight bit, it will have to do so by generating content that is in line with the times. It has to strike a chord with the current generation that has grown up in times of even more choices that the preceding generations didn’t have. DD has to come out of the denial mode and stop playing the PSB (public service broadcaster) card to ignore competition with private players. It has to understand the changing market dynamics and brand itself as an infotainment provider through a rigorous marketing effort. But none of it would suffice without high quality content. It already has a huge advantage in having exclusive access in Government offices and unparalleled rich archives? Why can’t it leverage that? Or how about producing quality documentaries with an aim to strengthen national identity and culture? Say, a remake of Shyam Benegal’s famous Yatra series that covered the length and breadth of India through mesmerizing railway journeys?

Ideas are aplenty. DD can make a huge impact in the education segment. It can team up with institutes to provide educational content on television. Primary or secondary education, preparatory material for the IIT-JEE or the Civil Services, whatever it is.. why not use TV as a medium? I’m sure there are people willing to comply. Even for free (cite Unacademy).

As for that common bureaucratic question (or should I say excuse) of where the money and technology would come from, take a cue from the BBC. The BBC is the one of the most trusted sources of news and information not just in the UK but across the globe. Never has it’s position of eminence been massively challenged by private players. While a part of the reason behind it is that that it keeps the State at an arm’s length from itself, another part is that it is financially a giant. Every TV owner in the UK pays an annual licence fee, and this fee is the main source of income for the BBC. Over 70% of this licence fee is spent on high-quality programmes and on technology infrastructure, thereby giving the audience a ‘value-for-money’. What’s stopping the Prasar Bharti from embracing this BBC model that many other public service broadcasters have implemented to good benefit?

The Doordarshan has so much of content from the years gone by; reels and reels of programmes that a large section of the Indian audience currently in it’s 20s, 30s or beyond craves for. Barring a few small Youtube clips, these programmes are nowhere to be found on the internet. DD can either sell this material to willing private players or can come up with it’s own online platform to sell CDs/DVDs of these shows as well as archives ranging from films to old cricket matches. I’m sure there would be a large number of takers. This could be a source of revenue and a source of recognition alike. Who doesn’t like a win-win?

Lastly, in addition to the suggested appointment of an independent body that oversees content, DD also needs to undergo some basic structural reforms. According to a Sam Pitroda report for reform proposals, the Prasar Bharti is massively overstaffed; so much so that it has four times the number of employees than Zee but only one-fourth of what Zee earns as revenue.

To sum up, what’s that one thing this reform process warrants as an imperative? Will. Will of the babus sitting over at Prasar Bharti to remodel Doordarshan (and even AIR for that matter) and appeal to the lost audience all over again; and will of the political class to distance themselves from the public broadcaster. It is easier said than done but something that must be undertaken to not let the DD keep on being that old cassette that was once played at every family function but now lies dusted in a forlorn corner of the house.


“Sam Pitroda Expert Committee on Prasar Bharati January 2014_-Vol_1”
“Don’t Let Doordarshan Die”, G. Krishna Kumar (
James Astill’s “The Great Tamasha”, Wisden Sports Writing- Bloomsbury India